I have conducted extensive independent multi-sited fieldwork in war-torn, crisis-affected and otherwise fragile settings. The interviewees included ex-combatants, military and police officials, indigenous and afro leaders, refugees, internally displaced people, community leaders, non-governmental organisation staff, representatives of international organisations, government officials and academics. The main field sites include rural and urban areas in Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela:


  • Nariño
  • Putumayo
  • Arauca
  • Norte de Santander
  • Cesar
  • La Guajira
  • Bogotá
  • Soacha


  • Esmeraldas
  • Carchi
  • Sucumbíos
  • Quito


  • Apure
  • Táchira
  • Zulia
  • Caracas